|Audio-lingual||Communicative Language Teaching|
|Attends to structure and form more than meaning.||Meaning is paramount.|
|Demands memorization of structure-based dialogues.||Dialogues, if used, center around communicative functions and are not normally memorized.|
|Language items are not necessarily contextualized.||Contextualization is a basic premise.|
|Language learning is learning structures, sounds, or words.||Language learning is learning to communicate.|
|Mastery, or "over-learning" is sought.||Effective communication is sought.|
|Drilling is a central technique.||Drilling may occur, but peripherally.|
|Native-speaker-like pronunciation is sought.||Comprehensible pronunciation is
|Grammatical explanation is avoided.||Any device which helps the learners
is accepted — varying according to
their age, interest, etc.
|Communicative activities only come after a long process of rigid drills and exercises||Attempts to communicate may be
encouraged from the very
|The use of the student's native language is forbidden.||Judicious use of native language is
accepted where feasible.
|Translation is forbidden at early levels||Translation may be used where
students need or benefit from it.
|Reading and writing are
deferred till speech is mastered.
|Reading and writing can start from
the first day, if desired.
|The target linguistic system will be learned through the overt teaching of the patterns of the system.||The target linguistic system will be
learned best through the process
of struggling to communicate.
|Linguistic competence is the desired goal.||Communicative competence is the desired goal (i.e. the ability to use the linguistic system effectively and appropriately).|
|Varieties of language are
recognized but not emphasized.
|Linguistic variation is a central concept in materials and methodology.|
|The sequence of units is
determined solely by principles of linguistic complexity.
|Sequencing is determined by any consideration of content, function, or meaning which maintains interest.|