Audio-lingual Communicative Language Teaching
Attends to structure and form more than meaning. Meaning is paramount.
Demands memorization of structure-based dialogues. Dialogues, if used, center around communicative functions and are not normally memorized.
Language items are not necessarily contextualized. Contextualization is a basic premise.
Language learning is learning structures, sounds, or words. Language learning is learning to communicate.
Mastery, or "over-learning" is sought. Effective communication is sought.
Drilling is a central technique. Drilling may occur, but peripherally.
Native-speaker-like pronunciation is sought. Comprehensible pronunciation is sought.
Grammatical explanation is avoided. Any device which helps the learners is accepted varying according to their age, interest, etc.
Communicative activities only come after a long process of rigid drills and exercises Attempts to communicate may be encouraged from the very beginning.
The use of the student's native language is forbidden. Judicious use of native language is accepted where feasible.
Translation is forbidden at early levels Translation may be used where students need or benefit from it.
Reading and writing are deferred till speech is mastered. Reading and writing can start from the first day, if desired.
The target linguistic system will be learned through the overt teaching of the patterns of the system. The target linguistic system will be learned best through the process of struggling to communicate.
Linguistic competence is the desired goal. Communicative competence is the desired goal (i.e. the ability to use the linguistic system effectively and appropriately).
Varieties of language are recognized but not emphasized. Linguistic variation is a central concept in materials and methodology.
The sequence of units is determined solely by principles of linguistic complexity. Sequencing is determined by any consideration of content, function, or meaning which maintains interest.